PHRASE, CLAUSE, SENTENCE, ESSAY, THEIR TYPES AND EXAMPLES AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEM
Here in particular Article, it is a long term Article, and i wrote this specifically for English Student, i spent much time to write this.
This Post consist of PHRASE, CLAUSE, SENTENCE, ESSAY, THEIR TYPES AND EXAMPLES AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEM etc.
This Article was written and published by HUZZ NEWS
A phrase is a group of words that expresses a concept and is used as a unit within a sentence.
A phrase can also be defined as a group of words that adds meaning to a sentence.
A phrase is not a sentence because it is not a sentence because it is not a complete idea with a subject, verb and predicate.
A phrase is a small group of words that adds meaning to a sentence.
As we said earlier a phrase has a noun or verb but does not have a subject doing a verb. Eg. ‘Leaving behind the dog’
Phrase is categorized based on their findings or structure. There are various types of phrases which are as follows: the noun phrase, Adjectival phrase, Adverbial phrase prepositional phrase, verbal phrase infinite phrase etc.
WHAT IS A CLAUSE?
CLAUSE: A clause is smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition. A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate.
A clause may form part of a sentence or may be a complete sentence in itself. There two board categories of clause the main clause, which expresses a complete through and an independent clause which depends on other words in the sentence to make a complete thought.
The main clause is also referred to as the independent clause while the independent clause as the sub-ordinate clause.
MAIN OR INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
These are groups of words that are grammatically complete as it can stand on its own and express full thought or complete meaning. It has a subject and a finite verb and can stand alone as a simple sentence or combined with other clauses to form other sentence types. Eg. Festus is sleeping.
INDEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
A subordinate clause is a group of words that is grammatically incomplete and depends on the main clause to express complete meaning. It contains the subject and the predicate.
There are three types of all ordinate clause; there are the noun clause, and the Adjectival clause.
Noun Clause: The noun clauses behave as noun or noun phrase and perform three functions, name, subject and object of a verb eg. What makes her proud is her position (Noun clause as subject)
I saw what thief teacher asked for He did not explain why he failed the examination.
There is joy in whatever we do
Just as adjective, Adjectival clause qualifies the noun or pronoun in the main clause of the sentence. Adjective clause are introduced by the relative pronouns of who, unused, whom, that which e.g.
I saw the student whose book was stolen Adjectival clause qualifying book was stole Adjectival clause qualifying noun.
Is that the house which Etim built?
Adjectival clause qualifying the noun the house.
Adverbial clauses are varied in number and they perform the role of adverbs that is they modify the verb adjective or another adverb in the main clause. We have various types of adverbial clauses dignified by the manner of what it qualifies. Eg
Adverbial clause of place introduces conjunctions like ‘where’ wherever etc
I saw the book where I kept it.
(Modifying the verb saw)
Wherever you pieced it return it.
Modify the verb return
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME WORDS
Such as since, while when, whenever after before as soon as, as long as etc introduces this clause. Eg
I went to school when it was raining
(Modifies the verb ‘went’)
I inherited my father’s property since the time he died in 1972
(Modify the verb intended)
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF MANNER
Words used to introduced the type of adverbial clause, are as, if as if an though etc. Eg
The baby cried as if he had not eaten at all
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OR REASONING
Introduced by because, as, in as much etc Because, I was hungry I almost stole my funds money (modify the verb stole)
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF PURPOSE
These are introduced by that; in order that, in case, so that etc.
Let us go to school so that we can meet him (modifies the verb go)
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF DEGREE/COMPARISON
Introduced by words such as more than etc Etim is as much as tall as the boy in your class.
Adverbial clause of condition
This is introduced by if, unless, provided that, in case etc.
I will not attend the party unless I am invited.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF CONCESSION
Introduced by words such as though even though even if etc.
Although he was very ill, he still write the exanimation.
WHAT IS A SENTENCE?
A sentence are group of words that express complete thought. It is otherwise.
Described as a meaningful unit which can stand alone and convey full meaning. A complete sentence contains a subject and a verb and does not depends on word outside it to make full meaning. A sentence may contain words, phrase, clause, subject and verb combination to express effective meaning. In a nutshell a sentence is the largest independent unit of grammer it begins with a capital letter and ends. With a period question mark, or exclamation.
TYPES OF SENTENCES
There basically from different types of sentence structure, there are the simple sentences, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound complex sentences. Sentences can also be clarified functional which are the declarative sentence, interrogative sentence, imperative sentence and endamatory sentence.
Every sentence contains the subject and the predicate. Eg.
Constance passed her examinations
The subject is usually the person place or thing, idea quality or condition the acts or is gated upon or is described or identified in the sentence.
A subject can either be simple or compound supple subject usually consist of a single word such as. Helen is my friend.
White the compound subject contain two or more simple subjects, joined by a conjunction as in, Holden and Deborah Etim need of kin
The predicate is usually the remaining part of the sentence which gives information about the subject. In other words it expresses the action or state of being of the subject e.g. Uwem Umanah graduated from Ibom Polytechnic Etim was disqualified in yesterday election.
A simple sentence is a sentence that is made up of only one main clause.
A simple sentence contains only one subject and one predicated.
A simple sentence consists of subject, verb and predicate. (SVO) Eg
I love my wife that
This is made up of two main clauses joined together by a coordinating conjunction or the semi-colon.
A compound sentence has more than one subject or predicate
A compound sentence has at least two independent clauses. Independent clause is a clause that has a subject and a verb and forms a complete thought these independent clauses in a compound sentences must have related ideals. The coordinating conjunctions are for, and or, nor but, get and so Eg.
I am a teacher and my wife is an accountant we live in the same compound but we don’t talk to each other although I was in school, I did not attend my lecture.
COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCE
These are sentences that are made up of up of two main clauses in addition to one or more subordinate clauses to one dependent. Eg
He invited me to his house but I did not see him when I got there (dependent clause) He stole my cow and sold it away so that he could leave the country (dependent clause).
This is a sentence that is made up of one main clause and a dependent clause or subordinate clause. Eg
Although I was in school, I did not attend my lecture.
FUNCTION A CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE
Sentences are classified into the following four types functionally
A declarative sentence also known as a statement, make a statement and ends with a period. The states or declares something. In other words declarative sentence is expressed in the form of statement. Declarative sentence makes up a large part of our written and spoken language. Declarative a sentences that provide some kind of information. Eg
If I have to choice will say that my favourite course is Adverting. Declaration sentence otherwise known as assertive sentences.
An interrogative sentence is a sentence that axes questions. Interrogative sentences are typically marked by questions marks: We have four types of interrogative questions. There are:
- Tag Question: These are questions used to seek conformation and the answers are usually drawn from the question. E.g You are my friend, aren’t you?
- Polar Question: These are questions that need fees or no as answers Eg or no as answers e.g Did you finish the job. Will you eat garri
- WH Questions: These are questions that begin with the what, why, when, which, where, who and how. E.g who is four father?
These are a sentence that expresses emotional feelings. An exclamatory sentence is exclamation. It is a more forceful version of declarative sentence. These sentences usually ends with explanation mark god is great
What are beautiful day
An imperative sentence give a command it usually ends with a period but it may also end with as exclamation mark. Command asks people to do something imperative do not always carry the subject except for the sake of emphasis and these will carry the exclamation mark write the mild ones do not e.g. Please let’s go (mild)
Get away from sight (forceful) don’t border me please (mild) forget that (forceful)
An essay is a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analeptic speculator or interpretative. Essay is a price of writing that gives the author’s own argument.
TYPES OF ESSAY
Essays as classified according to the purpose they are supposed to accomplish. There are basically for categories of essays which are the expositing, description argumentic and narrative.
The expository essay is any writing that teaches or tries to explain a topic or subject matter. It is an informative piece of writing that presents a balance analysis of a topic. Expository essays are based on facts. The expository essay encompasses a wide change of essay variations such as the comparison and contrast essay and the cause and effect analysis.
In a narrative essay the writer tells the story about a real life experiences. A narrative essay is an essay that looks back in time. When writing a narrative essay, the writer should have to involve the reader by making the strong as vivid as possible. Write a narrative in the first person helps engage the reader. The ‘l’ sentences give readers there a feeling of being part of the strong. A narrative essay will also build towards drawing a conclusion or making personal statement.
A descriptive essay is an essay which punts pictures. In this type of essay the writer tries to use language to make readers see, feel, smell, hear and taste what the object of description is like the writer might describe a person place, object or even memory of special significance. A descriptive essay strives to communicate a deeper meaning through the description. The best descriptive essay appeals to the reader emotion.
This type essay appeals to the reasoning faculty of its readers. It seeds to tell why something is the way it is why it is not so. An augmentative essay allows you to decide on a topic and take a stand on it the act of augmentative is not an essay skill to acquire. The augmentative essay is to show that your assertion, opinion, memory, or phenomenon is correct or more truthful than the others.
FEATURES OF ESSAY TYPE
- Quality of evidence used
- Relevance of evidence used in relation to the assertion or proposition being made
- The concept of between the relationship of the inter and the perceived audience
- Compare what the reader knows to what he does not know to forms a knowledge base.
- Teach a moral or draw an analogy
- Technicalities in language is not welcome in this form of writing, if used, must be explain adequately
- The descriptive essay dwells on comparisons
- Give details which are built into a clear picture.
- Give characteristics or features of the object they take about
- Predominately written in the past tense
- The plot must be creatively built to keep the reader interest sustained to the end by the use of the element of suspense
Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the dictionary definition of a word.
Denotation means the primary meaning of a word, inwardness of the feelings or ideas that the words suggest denotation as the explicit or direct meaning of a word in contrast to its figurative meaning.
Denotation is one of the ways that meaning can be attached to words. For example the denotation of the word ‘modern’ simply means recent times’ although the word may have different connotations
Connotations are meaning added a word in addition to its literal meaning. The secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning e.g the word ‘home’ connotes a place of rest warmth, comfort and affection. When you talk about the implied subtext of a word rather than the literal meaning it is referred to as connotation. Connotation is just a feeling a word invokes. These meaning associated to words depends on our experiences and background.
Every word has as a positive, ergative and neutral connotation when applying connotation in sentences you should know that depending on the context connotation of award choice can change the meaning of the entire sentence. E.g. Using the award ‘chick’ refer to a woman often carry a negative connotation.
Words like childlike and childish implies that a person is immature.
Youthful refers that someone is energetic the word ‘knock out’ can be taken as a compliment, but can also be considered as a sexist when referring to a woman. E.g. you need to be pushy, when looking for a job wow, this babe was a knockout.
Comprehension is the ability to understand a passage intellectually fads and ideas in the passage in question. Strong readers purchase active reading meaning, the reader uses strategies to make himself think and natively decides written words
Active reading strategies make it more likely that a student will understand a text.
These strategies for effective comprehension are as follows:
- Connecting – Identify where there’s difficultly
- Visualizing – Identify what the difficultly is
- Questioning – Question the text or authority
- Inferring – Meaning should be from the text
- Determining the importance in the text
- Synthesizing – look beak through the text
Colloquialism as informal words or expression that is more suitable to use in speech that in written.
Colloquialisms are words or expressions used by ordinary language by common people.
There are casual conversations where some strong terms are used and where not attempt is made at being formal. Colloquialism are generally, geographic in native what this means is that a colloquial expressions often belong to a regional or local dialect. Native speakers of a language understand and use colloquialism without realizing it, while non-native speakers margined colloquial expression hard to translate. This is because many colloquialisms are not literal usages of words and colloquialisms are similar to stands. Eg of colloquial, eat my dust ‘’pass the back’’ you’re driving me nuts etc.
Slangs are language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal and are more common in speech than writing and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people.
Slangs are words or phrases that are regarded as vary informal language used by a particular group of people slangs could be indecent or descend slangs is a vanishing of language which is known as a non-standard language it is non standard because the language deeds not follow the normal language attributions Normally slangs a humorous and impolite.
Another’s characteristic of slang is its inconsistency in terms of meaning. E.g long ago the word ‘cool’ represents cola temperature while the word ‘gay’ represent cheerfulness. Today the meanings of both words have been changed now the word ‘cool’ represents something good and great while gay’ represents a man who is sexually attracted to a fellow man.
Slangs is divided into four groups, the county slangs, which is used by those who are in the rural parts of a county, urban slangs are spoken by people in the city.
The common slangs are used by almost everybody and finally the gay slangs are used by bisexual, homosexuals are transsexual.
Every culture and region has its own slangs E.g of slangs
Last night was flop.
My friends are such floppers.
A flop means the planned event dies not happen and floppers are people who cannot appointment at the last minutes.
Jargons are special words used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand. It is a language used in a particular context that and may not be understood by others outside such professions. Or group.
It is particular common to find jargons in an industry such as a law firm, medicine, this group will not understand because the words used may have difficult definition than the regular usage of the word.
Jargon is used to provide more efficient communication between members of a certain group, sometime it could be used to exclude others from a conversation.
Some jargons can be adopted into common usage, especially the technological based jargons such as Ram, BXTE, ALL HANDS ON DECK’ etc.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLANGS, JARGONS AND COLLOQUIALISM
|This is a specific under- terms that are informal who and often idiomatic.||Informal language generally used by social group such as teen a few.||Jargons can be stood by anyone is part of an industry.|
|Often bounded by a geographic region.
|Slangs is bounded by age, class as well as geography.||Jargon is not limited by age, region class, but instead by the choices the person makes.|
|Not bounded by age a class.|
A summary is a condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long or short.
To write a summary use your own words to express brief the main idea and relevant details of the piece fore have read. Writing a summary is a great way to process the information you read.
THE FOLLOWING ARE STEPS IN WRITING A SUMMARY
- Read the Piece Thoroughly: This reading is done without making any lairds of marks, instead focus on what they inter is saying. This means reading the text more than once.
- Write down what you think the main point of the piece is: This write help you try to put the pieces together. Compare your sentences to the argument of the author. Adjust your writing until your main point and they anthers match.
- Reread the piece taking notes on the major point of it: Once you know for sure what the authors main point is re-read the initiate looking for supporting sentences to the author main point. Take notes on those supporting points, putting them into yours words.
- Don’t focus on the evidence the writer uses to support those point: You only needs to know what they are arguing; you only needs to take of the reasons, not the examples of the reasons used by the author.
TYPES OF SUMMARY WRITING
A summary should be accurate and while 100% objectively may not be possible, the summary writer should shire to stay close as possible to the author position. The summary writer should fairly represent the author ideas rather than in duding the summary’s writes ideas or interpretations
There are three types of summary the main point summary, the cry point summary and the outline summary.
KEY POINT SUMMARY
This type of summary will have the same features as a main point summary but also include the reasons and evidence. This method is used when it is necessary for the summary writer to fully explain anther ideas to the reader.
MAIN POINT SUMMARY
Main point summary is more like an article abstract, giving the most important facts of the text. It should identify the title, author, and main points or argument.
An outline summary is usually in the form of a list divided into headings and sub-headings that distinguishes main point from supporting points. An outline is otherwise called hierarchal outline. It is a list arranged to show hierarchal relationships.
Drama is interactive that is written in the form of dialogue or conversation.
Drama is best understood when acted out
Drama could also be described as a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or let a strong usually involving congests or emotions through actions and ……
Drama is a specific mode of function represented in performance.
TYPES OF DRAMA
Drama is basically divided into two groups’ comedy and tragedy. Comedy is traditional defined as a play that has a happy ending. The action begins or a note of trouble or amusing difficulty but the situations is resolved so that the end is pleasant.
Comedies can also become satirical when they tend to expose evil in other to experience it. E.g of comedy are our husband have one mad by Ola Rodimi, shake speak ‘Tiregth Night and the trails of brother Jero by wole sojinka
TRAGEDY: Tragedy is the reverse of comedy. It usually begins on a redistricting peaceful and pleas out note and the introduction of disorders. Create close and disaster for the major character, which involves serious treats to life or outright death.
TRACUCOMEDY: This is a dramatic mode that blends the features of a tragedy and comedy so that non-predominate. Usually it appears to be a tragedy for most of the play, but a sudden reversal of fortunes actives the happy ending that characterizes comedy e.g. The merchant of vertices by shake spear.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RADIO AND TELEVISION DRAMA
|Radio plays are divided into sequence every sequence ends with a cut or Fade. The passage of time may be indicated by music or a silence learning no doubt in the minds of the audience, where the scene is taking place.||There is no limitation in characters story may revolve around more than 8 or 9 people as every character is seen on screen.|
|Radio characterization is usually limited, and the story should evolve around single people.||In television facial expressions are seen body language, it embraces the non-verbal audio and verbal at the same time.|
|Dialogue in radio must be expressive as much as possible, these word must create a meld picture.||In television is the act of camera shot.|
|In radio plays it is very necessary to indicate the sheds and pause in a ‘speech.|
|In radio sound effects are used to bring expression and actualities to the drama.|
|In radio the drama is written in a way to keep the visual sense.|
TERMINOLOGY IN DRAMA
Act: A major division in a play. An act can be sub divided into scenes.
Antagonist: A character or force against which another character struggles.
Aside: Words spoken by an actor directly to the audience but not heard by the other characters during a play.
Climax: A work in which the central act of the play reaches a successful end.
Conflict: There is no conflict without conflict. Conflict between opposing forces conflict can be external or internal.
Resolution: The action of untying the main complication in the play.
Dialogue: The conversation of charactering in a literary work